Clinical Aspects of Viral Diseases
Biography: Husham Y. M. Ali Bayazed from the Scientific Research Center, University of Zakho Kurdistan Regional Government,Iraq.
Abstract: Objective: The present study was performed to assess the immune response in women with HPV DNA positive and negative cervical lesions.
Methods and Patients: Eighty women with cervical lesions (age range of 25-70 years) were studied. The lesions were cytologically classified into 4 groups: ASC-US (20), CINI (30), CINII-III (16), and cervical carcinoma (14) prior to HPV DNA detection. Estimation of IL-10 and TNF-α cytokines was performed via Enzyme linked immunosorrbent assay (ELISA) technique in cervical secretions and serum and PCR screening kits were utilized to detect HPV DNA on cervical smears.
Results: The detected levels of IL-10 (mean ± SE) concentration in cervical secretions of patients with HPV DNA positive and negative states and control group were 88.73 ± 16.90 pg/ml, 24.00 ± 2.84 pg/ml and 8.27 ± 0.59 pg/ml respectively with significant differences (p<0.05), while levels of TNF-α in cervical secretion of the studied groups were 12.18 ± 3.49 pg/ml, 9.90 ± 0.73 pg/ml, and 7.90 ± 0.87 pg/ml respectively with non significant differences. The detected levels of IL-10 in cervical secretions of HPV DNA positive cases (88.73 ± 16.90 pg/ml) were significantly higher than in the sera (13.69 ± 2.41 pg/ml) (p<0.05), while the levels of TNF-α in their cervical secretions (12.18 ± 3.49 pg/ml) was slightly raised than in their sera (11.5 9 ± 3.14 pg/ml) with non significance differences.
Conclusions: A raised levels of both IL-10 and TNF-α in secretions of HPV D NA positive women with different cervical lesions were detected. However, the observed higher levels of IL-10 than TNF-α indicate down-modulation of tumor-specific immune response to HPV infected lesions via significant raised concentrations of the first cytokine than the second one. Therefore, this phenomenon seems to provide a tumor progressive microenvironment by the immunosuppressant properties of IL-10 with minimal antitumor activity of TNF-α.
Key word: IL-10, TNF-α, HPV DNA, cervical lesions, and cervical cancer.
Veterinary virology and vaccines
Biography: Salwa A. Aly is Professor from the Department Food Hygiene in Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,Cairo University.
Abstract: Buffalo, cow, sheep and goat raw milk samples (30 each) were examined for Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV).
The mean titer value was 103 ±0.02, 103 ± 0.01, 104 ± 0.03 and 103 ± 0.10 PFU/ml, respectively. Thermal processing of milk at 50°C for 10 min, long-time pasteurization at 63°C for 30 min, short-time pasteurization 72°C for 15 s, double set pasteurization at 72°C for 30 s, ultra-heat treatment (UHT) at 135°C for 1 sec. and sterilization at 121°C for 15 min were applied. Only UHT and double set pasteurization proved to be a reliable method for inactivating the virus in milk. Cheese manufacture could not guarantee the complete inactivation of FMD virus: however, the virus survived curing for 90 d (pH 4.9) but not for 120 d (pH 4.5) during refrigerated storage. Additionally, FMD virus was completely inhibited in yoghurt and could not be detected either when fresh or during cold storage (pH 4.4).
Key words: FMD virus viability, milk, cheese and yoghurt.
Biography: Muhammad Hidayat Rasool is from Department of Microbiology, Government College University Faisalabad Pakistan
Abstract: Poultry industry is one of the leading industries and a source of income for more than 17 million people, contributing 23.8% of total meat production in Pakistan. However, this industry is facing severe economic losses in Pakistan due to several factors; major part of which is by infectious diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND), a highly fatal and infectious viral disease. According to a report published in April 2012, this virus killed 44 million broiler birds causing a loss of 6 billion rupees in Pakistan. The control of this deadly disease mainly based on strict bio-security measures and immuno-prophylaxis. The currently used live-attenuated ND vaccines prepared from valogenic strains are unable to control the problem and outbreaks are being reported continuously. This might be due to the emergence of new strains that possess divergent antigenic regions of virus. The major risk involved with such vaccines is reversion back to virulency especially in immunocompromised flocks. Moreover, stability and thus storage is also a problem in developing countries like Pakistan. To address this issue, new approaches that involve the use of surface components of virulent viral strains have to be explored. In Pakistan, to our knowledge, modern approach to generate non-replicating virus-like particles (VPLs), known as virosomes for control of infections in poultry is not being actively pursued at any institution. Virosomes are non-replicating VLPs, consisting of reconstituted viral membranes without viral genetic material. Virosomes can also provide platform for incorporation of lipophilic adjuvants, like lipophilic TLR ligands, together with viral protein antigens. Virosomes based vaccines are designed to maintain the immunogenicity of a live-attenuated virus but with the safety of a killed virus. Briefly, Indigenous NDV isolated from field outbreaks will be identified and characterized using standard protocols. Molecular characterization will be done by RT-PCR. Virosome based vaccines will be prepared and adjuvanted. Vaccine stability, sterility and pathogenicity testing will be done before in-vivo immunogenicity trials in poultry birds. Antibody titers will be measured using different immunodiagnostic tests and compared with currently available vaccines. Challenge protection test will be done using live virulent NDV. Data will be analyzed using appropriate statistical tools. It is therefore hoped that the successful execution of current project will result in a new technology in the field of poultry Vaccinology and will help in implementing the better disease control program against ND in the country in near future.
Agriculture and Plant Virology
Biography: Kathleen Hefferon received her PhD from the Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto. She worked as a postdoc, then received a faculty position at the Departments of Nutritional Sciences and Food Sciences at Cornell University. Kathleen is also a visiting faculty member at the University of Toronto, where she teaches virology. Kathleen has four patents and has written and edited six books. Kathleen is currently the co-editor of the Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability. Her research interests include viruses, vaccines, infectious disease, cancer, global public health and food/energy security.
Abstract: For over two decades now, plants have been explored for their potential to act as production platforms for biopharmaceuticals, such as vaccines and monoclonal antibodies. Without a doubt, the development of plant viruses as expression vectors for pharmaceutical production have played an integral role in the emergence of plants as inexpensive and facile systems for the generation of therapeutic proteins. More recently, plant viruses have been designed as non-toxic nanoparticles which can target a variety of cancers and thus empower the immune system to slow or even reverse tumor progression. The following presentation describes the employment of plant virus expression vectors for the treatment of some of the most challenging diseases known today. The presentation concludes with a projection of the multiple avenues by which virus nanoparticles could impact developing countries.
Biography: Muhammad Akram from the Department of Eastern Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences in The University of Poonch .
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of medicinal plants used as antiviral agents worldwide by traditional healers and herbal physicians. An extensive bibliographic review by analysing classical text books and peer reviewed papers and further approaching Cochrane databases were undertaken. We performed PubMed, EMbase and CENTRAL searches using terms such as “antiviral” activity of plants. Herbal medicines have been usually prescribed for treatment prescribed for treatment as anti-viral agents. In this paper, various medicinal plants possessing antiviral activities have been discussed for thorough studies such as Sambucus nigra, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Hypericum connatum and Silybum marianum etc. This review noticeably shows that it is time to expand the experimental studies to source new potential active constituents from medicinal plants. Medicinal plants and their active constituents should be further investigated to explain their mode of action. This review provides a solid base to further investigate the scientific effectiveness of medicinal plants that are both presently prescribed by traditional healers as traditional antiviral agents, but also could be efficacious as an antiviral medicine with additional research and study.
Keywords: Anti-viral therapy, medicinal plants, efficacy, literature review
Viral Hepatitis- Virus-host interactions
Biography: Ayano Inui., M.D., PhD is from Department of Hepatology & Gastroenterology, Saiseikai Yokohama-Shi Tobu Hospital, Shimosueyoshi,Japan. She has Poster Award in 5th Congress of the Asian Pan Pacific Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 1997 and 39th Tagaya Isamu Memorial ISKRA Incentive Award for Vaccine Research, 2015: Universal Vaccination against hepatitis B virus in Japan.
Abstract: Background: The viral hepatitis was the seventh highest cause of mortality globally. An estimated 1.4 million people annually died of acute infection and hepatitis-related cancer and cirrhosis. Of those deaths, approximately 47% are attributable to hepatitis B virus (HBV). Most guidelines adapted adults recommend lifelong therapy of nucleotide analog, with the goals of viral suppression and ALT normalization in the absence of HBsAg loss and seroconversion. However, in children, treatment of nucleotide analogs for a lifetime should not be recomennded, and the effect is limited.
Aim: We investigated the efficacy of pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN) in children with chronic hepatitis B retrospectively.
Patients and Methods: Eligible patients were aged at 15 years old or younger with HBe antigen positive of chronic HBV infection, serum ALT levels of greater than 30 U / L for more than 3 years, and 1 year after the completing treatment of PEG-IFN. Patients were administered 180 mcg of PEG-IFN α once a week for 48 weeks. Serum levels of ALT, HBV DNA, HBe antigen, anti-HBe antibody, HBs antigen were measured every 6 months after administration, and the HBs antibody titer was measured when the HBV DNA became undetectable. The primary efficacy endpoint includes the three criteria of (1) ALT ≦ 30 U / L, (2) loss of HBe antigen and anti-HBe antibody positive, and (3) HBV DNA <4 log copies / ml. The second efficacy endpoint was the proportion of the patients with HBs seroconversion to anti-HBs antibody during the follow-up.
RESULTS: Eight cases were enrolled in this study. The baseline characteristics were as follows; six were boys and 2 were girls, the median age at first visit was 2.3 years old (ranged from 1 to 12 years old), the median present age was 13 years old (ranged from 8 to 20 years old), and the median follow-up period was 10.6 years (ranged from 7 to 12 years). The routes of infection were 6 cases of mother-to-child transmission, one case of father-to-child, and one case of grandfather-to-child. Two children had the family histories of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV genotypes were C: 6 cases; Ba: one case; A: one case. Nationality was 5 cases in Japan and 3 cases in Vietnam. Histological findings before PEG-IFN treatment were chronic hepatitis with A1 - 3, F1 - 3 in New Inuyama classification (Japanese most reliable one). The median age at the time of administration of PEG-IFN was 9 years old (ranged from 4 to 18 years old), the median maximum ALT level before administration was 189 U / L (ranged from 70 to 1032 U / L), the median serum HBV DNA level before administration was 8.4 log copies/ml (ranged from 6～＞9.0 log copies/ml). The median highest ALT level during administration is 265.5 U / L (ranged from 102 to 673 U / L), the lowest median HBV DNA level during administration is 2.7 log copies / ml (ranged from 0 to 7.2 log copies / ml), and the median follow-up period after PEG-IFN administration was 3 years (ranged from 1 to 3 years). The median HBV DNA at present time was 2.9 log copies / ml (ranged from 0 to 8.5 log copies / ml) and the median ALT value at present time was 28 U / L (ranged from 7 to 59 U / L). Five patients (62.5%) achieved the first efficacy endpoint, and one with the second efficacy endpoint (12.5%). One case achieving the first efficacy endpoint had HBs antigen level of 1.22 IU / ml and anti-HBs antibody titer of 28.6 mIU / ml. One patient achieving the first efficacy endpoint with positive for anti-HBs antibody and one patient achieving the second efficacy endpoint were both Vietnamese and genotype C.
DISCUSSION: Although the number is too small to examine the statistically significant relevance factor in PEG-IFN treatment effect in children, the efficacy of PEG-IFN seems to be higher in children than in adults.
CONCLUSION: PEG-IFN should be considered as the first-line drug for treatment of HBe antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B in children.
Biography: Said H. Abbadi has completed his MD from Suez Canal University Faculty of Medicine in 1988. He got his PhD in Microbiology in 1998 and completed postdoctoral studies at CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA. Currently, he is the head of Microbiology Department at SCU, FOM.. He has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of reputed journals..
Abstract: Egypt has the largest epidemic of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the world. The recently released Egyptian Demographic Health Survey [EDHS]* tested a representative sample of the entire country for HCV antibody in 2008. The sample included both urban and rural populations and included all 27 governorates of Egypt. Over 11,000 individuals were tested. The overall prevalence (percentage of people) positive for antibody to HCV was 14.7%.Interestingly, genotype 4 represents over 90% of cases in Egypt. Chronic HCV is the main cause of liver cirrhosis and liver cancer in Egypt and, indeed, one of the top five leading causes of death. In Egypt, the major route of exposure appears to be due to injection therapy and inadequate infection control practices. In addition to blood transfusions prior to 1994, the major risk factor associated with HCV infection is a history of antischistosomal injection treatment before 1986. Schistosomiasis used to be a common parasitic disease in Egypt acquired through swimming or wading in contaminated irrigation channels or standing water. Thus, farmers and rural populations were at greatest risk, and this is supported by the higher prevalence rate of HCV in the Nile delta and rural areas. Hepatitis is today recognized by people at all levels in Egypt. The good news is that Egypt reached agreement to access new oral hepatitis C treatments that promise higher cure rates at significantly reduced cost.
Human Viral Diseases Affecting Afro-Asian Continents
Biography: Dr Su has completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at the age of 31 years and in Clinical Pathology two years later; and obtained the Master degree from the Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan when he was 32 years old. At present, he is the attending physician of Departments of Anatomic Pathology and Clinical Pathology, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi Hospital, and the Associate Professor of Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Tzu Chi University, Taiwan. He has published more than 40 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute.
Abstract: Human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS). The incidence of KS in renal transplant patients is much higher than in healthy controls. The risk is even higher among recipients seropositive for HHV-8 before transplantation. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are immunocompromised and are candidates for renal transplantation, but HHV-8 seroprevalence in ESRD patients has not been well documented.
For this, we aimed to evaluate HHV-8 seroprevalence in ESRD patients in a cohort in Taiwan. Blood samples collected from 149 ESRD patients and 149 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were analyzed for HHV-8 antibody with immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and for HHV-8 DNA with polymerase chain reaction.
Seropositivity and titers for HHV-8 antibodies with IFA as well as seropositivity with ELISA were significantly greater in ESRD patients than in healthy controls (P = 0.006, 0.001 and 0.003, respectively). Patients with a history of taking herbal medicine had significantly greater ELISA positivity than those without such a history (P = 0.004). ELISA positives, particularly patients, had much higher IFA antibody titres than ELISA negatives (P < 0.0001). Seropositivity in ESRD patients was not related to lymphopenia, monocytosis, dialysis duration, or a history of transfusion. Two diabetic ESRD patients were positive for HHV-8 DNA.
ESRD patients had significantly greater HHV-8 seropositivity than healthy controls in Taiwan. This association seems to be related to the geographic location of the cohort and invites further studies for the early association of HHV-8 infection in ESRD patients and risk for KS
Biography: PhD A. Professor of Medical Molecular Virology (MMV) Assistant Dean of University Studies & Dean of the Applied Medical Sciences in AlUla Board Ilham T Qattan is a member of the genes & genetic disease centerGeneral supervisor of Sidra center for research studies & statistical consulting Taibah University AlMadenah AlMonwara Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Abstract: Corona virus as a Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) considered being a
new complicated disease; it infects the epithelial cells in the respiratory and/or
intestinal tracts, thus causing disease in epidemic proportions.
The situation is exacerbated by either a short incubation period between 2-7 days or
between 12-14 days. In September 2012, coronavirus was identified for the first time
in a new series of infections, known as MERS-CoV. Since March 2012 and until the
end of November 2015, a total of 1655 cases were reported with the number of 577
deaths and 630 recovering from the disease, while 28% of the data were analyzed
throughout the world by WHO. The virus has been detected in Arabian Peninsula,
European countries such as Britain, Germany, France, Italy and Middle East.
However, to the idea that the Hajj season could trigger the transmission of MERSECoV
in Saudi Arabia remained controversial.
Biography: Ilham T Qattan is a member of the genes & genetic disease center General supervisor of Sidra center for research studies & statistical consulting Taibah University AlMadenah AlMonwara , Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Abstract: Majority of the HCV infections are caused by HCV genotype 1 having high resistance
to anti-HCV therapy among the Western population. Standard interferon (IFN) along
with pegylated-interferon (pegIFN) α 2a or 2b combination with or without ribavirin
is currently the approved therapy for HCV infection. Several factors are related with
antiviral reaction and stratified according to factors related with virus, host, and on
treatment. The objectives of this review included exploration of phenomenon of
interaction between HCV and IFN-α signalling pathway in patients receiving
treatment with RBV and IFN-α as a combination therapy for chronic HCV infection
(CHC). Another important objective of this review was to demonstrate mutations
associated with ISDR region to develop understanding of the controversies and the
correlations in resistance through chronic HCV-G1; in comparison to Japanese and
other studies. Changes in SNPs occurring within IL28B were also evaluated along
with the examination of relation between drugs and mutation. A literature review was
performed commencing after literature search. Pertinent literature was searched
through electronic databases PubMed, Science Direct, ProQuest, and MEDLINE
during the period 2010 to 2014. Manual searching of the grey literature and various
websites was conducted to obtain epidemiological data of HCV. The standard
treatment for HCV infection is RBV and pegIFN combination therapy. However,
SVR is induced in 50% of the HCV genotype 1 infection patients. The results of
IL28B genotyping studies revealed that there appear to be differences between the
distributions of the polymorphisms in different populations infected with HCV. NS5A
mutations to be connected with decreased reaction to IFN treatment among HCV
patients with genotype 1. PegIFN can be administered along with RBV regardless of
the genotype conferring polymorphism and mutations for the production of interferon.
Conclusion: Standard treatment for HCV infection is combination therapy of RBV
and pegIFN- α2a or -α2b. Mutations in the IL28B have to be considered prior to the
administration of RBV and pegIFN therapy for treating HCV-G1 infection in patients.
Clinical trials should evaluate the efficacy of RBV and pegIFN combination therapy
for HCV- G1 infection.
Biography: Mohammad Reza Hasanjani Roushan is from Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, 4718915986, Iran
Abstract: For assessing the immune status of children born to HBsAg positive mothers, the serologic status of 188 children who were only anti-HBs positive at 12-15 months of their age were evaluated. These children were born from 1996 through 2016 and received hepatitis B immune globuline (HBIG) and Hepatitis B vaccine at birth. They were assessed regarding HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc. The mean age of the children at the end of follow-up was 16±5.2 years. Twenty-four (12.8%) cases were exposed to HBV and among them, 12 cases became HBsAg positive. Among 80 boys, 11 (13.8%) had HBV exposure versus 13 (12%) of 108 girls (p=0.8). Among 151 children born to anti-HBe positive mothers, 12 (7.9%) had HBV exposure versus 12 (32.4%) of 37 children born to HBeAg positive mothers (p=0.0001, 95% CI, 2-10.01).The cumulative probabilities for the lack of exposure to HBV within 5, 10, 15, and 20 years of age were 97.2%, 89.4%, 79.8%, and 51.3% cases, respectively. Cox regression model showed that sex had no effect on the exposure to HBV, but children born to HBeAg positive mothers were more than those born to anti-HBe positive mothers (p<0.001). The results show that some of the vaccine responders’ children born to HBsAg positive mothers may be exposed to HBV infection in their subsequent years